There are five components of physical fitness. They are directly or indirectly inter-related with each other. These are…
Strength- It is the ability of muscles to overcome resistance. Strength can be defined as the amount of force a muscle can exert. It can be improved through systematic training with gym equipments.
- Static Strength- It is also known as the Isometric strength. It is the ability to act against resistance from single or one position. (Arm wrestling, power lifting with barbells & dumbbells, pushing wall etc.)
- Dynamic Strength- It is also known as isotonic strength. It is related to movement. We can say it is required for movement. It is of three types:
Maximal strength: It is the ability to act against maximum resistance. It is the quality of muscle to contract forcefully in the quickest possible time. It is also known as power.
Explosive strength: It is the ability to overcome resistance with a high speed. In fact, it is the combination of strength and speed. In simple words, it is the ability of muscles to perform forceful movement at quickest possible. It is required for very fast and powerful responses.
Strength Endurance: it is the combination of strength and ability. It is defined as the ability to overcome resistance under fatigue condition. This quality enables a person to sustain localized muscle group for an extended period of time.
- Speed – It is the ability to perform movement at faster rate. In other words, it is the ability to move as fast as possible. Speed is basically dependent on heredity but can be improved through proper training with fitness equipments. It is of three types:
Reaction time: It is the time taken by the body to respond immediately after the stimulus. It can also be said as the first reaction to bring the body into action.
Acceleration: It is the time taken by the body to reach maximum speed. This helps to gain speed during action.
Speed of Movement: It is the quickness of complete action or movement. In other words, it is the time taken by the body to perform complete action. It is also known as locomotive ability.
- Endurance- It is the ability to continue or sustain activity. In other words, it is the ability to resist fatigue. It is of two types:
- Short term/Anaerobic/Muscular Endurance: This component of endurance is helpful to perform activity for shorter duration with fast speed. This is where the anaerobic type of activity is done, when the intensity or the speed is very fast. This endurance is for a shorter duration and also known as muscular endurance as the activity is performed in the absence of oxygen with the help of stored energy in muscle glycogen. It produces a lot of fatigue and tiredness as it causes oxygen-debt.
- Long Term/Aerobic/Cardio-Vascular Endurance: This endurance is helpful when the activity is done for a longer duration and the intensity or the speed is slower. It is in fact the combination of circulatory and respiratory system which provides continuous energy for a work out. In other words, this type of activity is of aerobic nature and the speed is slow. It delays fatigue.
- Flexibility-It is the ability of joints to move in maximum range. Flexibility is specific to a given joint and dependent upon the musculature surrounding a joint. Flexibility varies from joint to joint due to its structure, surrounding and adjoining ligaments, tendons and muscles. It is of two types:
- Passive Flexibility: It is the ability of a joint to move in maximum range with external help.
- Active Flexibility: It is performed without external help or self- movement of a part to maximum range.
- Coordinative Ability or Agility: It is the ability of the body to perform movement with perfection and efficiency. It is the ability of the body to change the quickly and effectively. This provides good balance of the body during action. It is in fact the proper coordination of strength, speed, endurance and flexibility during movement. The accuracy of actions, rhythm, change of movement, balance, grace etc., all depend on the coordinative ability.